Your doctor may also prescribe a diuretic to deal with bloating, fluid retention, and hypertension high blood pressure. MS drugs are considered immuno-modulators. Staying as active as possible will help you to maintain strong muscles and bones. This product may contain inactive ingredients such as lactose or cow's milk protein found in some products , which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Excretion of the administered dose is nearly complete within 12 hours.
Patients should also be advised that if they are exposed, medical advice should be sought without delay. Inflammatory Conditions prednisone , hydrocortisone , prednisolone , methylprednisolone , dexamethasone , Medrol , More Your doctor may prescribe a drug for osteoporosis or advise you to take a calcium or hormone supplement. Added Benadryl which helped the itching until it wore off. I went to a pulmonary specialist for a consult on sleep apenea. Drugs which induce cytochrome P 3A4 enzyme activity may enhance the metabolism of corticosteroids and require that the dosage of the corticosteroid be increased.
In such patients, corticosteroid-induced immunosuppression may lead to Strongyloides hyperinfection and dissemination with widespread larval migration, often accompanied by severe enterocolitis and potentially fatal gram-negative septicemia. Corticosteroids should not be used in cerebral malaria. There is currently no evidence of benefit from steroids in this condition.
The use of corticosteroids in active tuberculosis should be restricted to those cases of fulminating or disseminated tuberculosis in which the corticosteroid is used for the management of the disease in conjunction with appropriate antituberculous regimen.
If corticosteroids are indicated in patients with latent tuberculosis or tuberculin reactivity, close observation is necessary as reactivation of the disease may occur. During prolonged corticosteroid therapy, these patients should receive chemoprophylaxis.
Administration of live or live, attenuated vaccines is contraindicated in patients receiving immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids. Killed or inactivated vaccines may be administered. However, the response to such vaccines can not be predicted. Immunization procedures may be undertaken in patients receiving corticosteroids as replacement therapy, e.
Chicken pox and measles can have a more serious or even fatal course in pediatric and adult patients on corticosteroids. In pediatric and adult patients who have not had these diseases, particular care should be taken to avoid exposure. If exposed to chicken pox, prophylaxis with varicella zoster immune globulin VZIG may be indicated. If exposed to measles, prophylaxis with immune globulin IG may be indicated. If chicken pox develops, treatment with antiviral agents should be considered.
Use of corticosteroids may produce posterior subcapsular cataracts, glaucoma with possible damage to the optic nerves, and may enhance the establishment of secondary ocular infections due to bacteria, fungi, or viruses. The use of oral corticosteroids is not recommended in the treatment of optic neuritis and may lead to an increase in the risk of new episodes.
Corticosteroids should be used cautiously in patients with ocular herpes simplex because of corneal perforation. Corticosteroids should not be used in active ocular herpes simplex. This product, like many other steroid formulations, is sensitive to heat. Therefore, it should not be autoclaved when it is desirable to sterilize the exterior of the vial. The lowest possible dose of corticosteroid should be used to control the condition under treatment.
When reduction in dosage is possible, the reduction should be gradual. Kaposi's sarcoma has been reported to occur in patients receiving corticosteroid therapy, most often for chronic conditions. Discontinuation of corticosteroids may result in clinical improvement. As sodium retention with resultant edema and potassium loss may occur in patients receiving corticosteroids, these agents should be used with caution in patients with congestive heart failure, hypertension, or renal insufficiency.
Drug-induced secondary adrenocortical insufficiency may be minimized by gradual reduction of dosage. Metabolic clearance of corticosteroids is decreased in hypothyroid patients and increased in hyperthyroid patients. Changes in thyroid status of the patient may necessitate adjustment in dosage. Steroids should be used with caution in active or latent peptic ulcers, diverticulitis, fresh intestinal anastomoses, and nonspecific ulcerative colitis, since they may increase the risk of a perforation.
Signs of peritoneal irritation following gastrointestinal perforation in patients receiving corticosteroids may be minimal or absent. There is an enhanced effect due to decreased metabolism of corticosteroids in patients with cirrhosis.
Corticosteroids decrease bone formation and increase bone resorption both through their effect on calcium regulation i. This, together with a decrease in the protein matrix of the bone secondary to an increase in protein catabolism, and reduced sex hormone production, may lead to inhibition of bone growth in pediatric patients and the development of osteoporosis at any age.
Special consideration should be given to patients at increased risk of osteoporosis i. Although controlled clinical trials have shown corticosteroids to be effective in speeding the resolution of acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis, they do not show that corticosteroids affect the ultimate outcome or natural history of the disease. The studies do show that relatively high doses of corticosteroids are necessary to demonstrate a significant effect.
An acute myopathy has been observed with the use of high doses of corticosteroids, most often occurring in patients with disorders of neuromuscular transmission e. This acute myopathy is generalized, may involve ocular and respiratory muscles, and may result in quadriparesis. Elevations of creatine kinase may occur. Clinical improvement or recovery after stopping corticosteroids may require weeks to years.
Psychic derangements may appear when corticosteroids are used, ranging from euphoria, insomnia, mood swings, personality changes, and severe depression, to frank psychotic manifestations. Also, existing emotional instability or psychotic tendencies may be aggravated by corticosteroids. Intraocular pressure may become elevated in some individuals. If steroid therapy is continued for more than 6 weeks, intraocular pressure should be monitored.
Patients should be warned not to discontinue the use of corticosteroids abruptly or without medical supervision, to advise any medical attendants that they are taking corticosteroids, and to seek medical advice at once should they develop fever or other signs of infection. Persons who are on corticosteroids should be warned to avoid exposure to chicken pox or measles.
Patients should also be advised that if they are exposed, medical advice should be sought without delay. Aminoglutethimide may lead to a loss of corticosteroid-induced adrenal suppression. Amphotericin B injection and potassium-depleting agents: When corticosteroids are administered concomitantly with potassium-depleting agents i.
There have been cases reported in which concomitant use of amphotericin B and hydrocortisone was followed by cardiac enlargement and congestive heart failure.
Macrolide antibiotics have been reported to cause a significant decrease in corticosteroid clearance see Drug Interactions, Hepatic Enzyme Inhibitors. Concomitant use of anticholinesterase agents and corticosteroids may produce severe weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis. If possible, anticholinesterase agents should be withdrawn at least 24 hours before initiating corticosteroid therapy.
Coadministration of corticosteroids and warfarin usually results in inhibition of response to warfarin, although there have been some conflicting reports. Therefore, coagulation indices should be monitored frequently to maintain the desired anticoagulant effect. Because corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations, dosage adjustments of antidiabetic agents may be required. Serum concentrations of isoniazid may be decreased. Cholestyramine may increase the clearance of corticosteroids.
Increased activity of both cyclosporine and corticosteroids may occur when the two are used concurrently. Convulsions have been reported with this concurrent use. Patients on digitalis glycosides may be at increased risk of arrhythmias due to hypokalemia.
Estrogens, including oral contraceptives: Estrogens may decrease the hepatic metabolism of certain corticosteroids, thereby increasing their effect. Hepatic Enzyme Inducers e. Drugs which induce cytochrome P 3A4 enzyme activity may enhance the metabolism of corticosteroids and require that the dosage of the corticosteroid be increased. Hepatic Enzyme Inhibitors e. Drugs which inhibit cytochrome P 3A4 have the potential to result in increased plasma concentrations of corticosteroids.
Concomitant use of aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and corticosteroids increases the risk of gastrointestinal side effects. Aspirin should be used cautiously in conjunction with corticosteroids in hypoprothrombinemia. The clearance of salicylates may be increased with concurrent use of corticosteroids. Patients on prolonged corticosteroid therapy may exhibit a diminished response to toxoids and live or inactivated vaccines due to inhibition of antibody response.
Corticosteroids may also potentiate the replication of some organisms contained in live attenuated vaccines. No adequate studies have been conducted in animals to determine whether corticosteroids have a potential for carcinogenesis or mutagenesis. Corticosteroids have been shown to be teratogenic in many species when given in doses equivalent to the human dose.
Animal studies in which corticosteroids have been given to pregnant mice, rats, and rabbits have yielded an increased incidence of cleft palate in the offspring. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Corticosteroids should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Infants born to mothers who have received corticosteroids during pregnancy should be carefully observed for signs of hypoadrenalism. Systemically administered corticosteroids appear in human milk and could suppress growth, interfere with endogenous corticosteroid production, or cause other untoward effects. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from corticosteroids, a decision should be made whether to continue nursing, or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
The efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in the pediatric population are based on the well-established course of effect of corticosteroids which is similar in pediatric and adult populations.
Other indications for pediatric use of corticosteroids, e. Like adults, pediatric patients should be carefully observed with frequent measurements of blood pressure, weight, height, intraocular pressure, and clinical evaluation for the presence of infection, psychosocial disturbances, thromboembolism, peptic ulcers, cataracts, and osteoporosis.
Pediatric patients who are treated with corticosteroids by any route, including systemically administered corticosteroids, may experience a decrease in their growth velocity.
This negative impact of corticosteroids on growth has been observed at low systemic doses and in the absence of laboratory evidence of HPA axis suppression i. Growth velocity may therefore be a more sensitive indicator of systemic corticosteroid exposure in pediatric patients than some commonly used tests of HPA axis function.
The linear growth of pediatric patients treated with corticosteroids should be monitored, and the potential growth effects of prolonged treatment should be weighed against clinical benefits obtained and the availability of treatment alternatives. In order to minimize the potential growth effects of corticosteroids, pediatric patients should be titrated to the lowest effective dose.
Clinical studies did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients.
In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. The following adverse reactions have been reported with Solu-Medrol or other corticosteroids:. Allergic or hypersensitivity reactions, anaphylactoid reaction, anaphylaxis, angioedema.
Bradycardia, cardiac arrest, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac enlargement, circulatory collapse, congestive heart failure, fat embolism, hypertension, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in premature infants, myocardial rupture following recent myocardial infarction see WARNINGS , pulmonary edema, syncope, tachycardia, thromboembolism, thrombophlebitis, vasculitis. Acne, allergic dermatitis, burning or tingling especially in the perineal area after intravenous injection , cutaneous and subcutaneous atrophy, dry scaly skin, ecchymoses and petechiae, edema, erythema, hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation, impaired wound healing, increased sweating, rash, sterile abscess, striae, suppressed reactions to skin tests, thin fragile skin, thinning scalp hair, urticaria.
Decreased carbohydrate and glucose tolerance, development of cushingoid state, glycosuria, hirsutism, hypertrichosis, increased requirements for insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents in diabetes, manifestations of latent diabetes mellitus, menstrual irregularities, secondary adrenocortical and pituitary unresponsiveness particularly in times of stress, as in trauma, surgery, or illness , suppression of growth in pediatric patients.
Fluid and electrolyte disturbances: Congestive heart failure in susceptible patients, fluid retention, hypokalemic alkalosis, potassium loss, sodium retention. Aseptic necrosis of femoral and humeral heads, Charcot-like arthropathy, loss of muscle mass, muscle weakness, osteoporosis, pathologic fracture of long bones, postinjection flare following intra-articular use , steroid myopathy, tendon rupture, vertebral compression fractures.
Convulsions, depression, emotional instability, euphoria, headache, increased intracranial pressure with papilledema pseudotumor cerebri usually following discontinuation of treatment, insomnia, mood swings, neuritis, neuropathy, paresthesia, personality changes, psychic disorders, vertigo. Exophthalmos, glaucoma, increased intraocular pressure, posterior subcapsular cataracts, rare instances of blindness associated with periocular injections.
Abnormal fat deposits, decreased resistance to infection, hiccups, increased or decreased motility and number of spermatozoa, injection site infections following non-sterile administration see WARNINGS , malaise, moon face, weight gain. Treatment of acute overdosage is by supportive and symptomatic therapy. For chronic overdosage in the face of severe disease requiring continuous steroid therapy, the dosage of the corticosteroid may be reduced only temporarily, or alternate day treatment may be introduced.
Use within 48 hours after mixing. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. This preparation may be administered by intravenous injection, by intravenous infusion, or by intramuscular injection, the preferred method for initial emergency use being intravenous injection. Following the initial emergency period, consideration should be given to employing a longer acting injectable preparation or an oral preparation.
Bradycardia has been reported during or after the administration of large doses of methylprednisolone sodium succinate, and may be unrelated to the speed or duration of infusion.
This dose may be repeated every 4 to 6 hours for 48 hours. Intravenous pulse steroid therapy consists of administration of supraphysiological doses of glucocorticoids. It is useful in conditions where rapid immunosuppression and antiinflammatory effect is desired, as in systemic lupus erythematosus, pemphigus, renal transplantation, steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome and crescentic glomerulonephritis.
This therapy may be associated with significant adverse reactions including hypertension, arrhythmias, hypokalemia, psychosis and infections. High dose steroid therapy should therefore be used in selected cases and under careful supervision.
The drug most widely used for this treatment is methylprednisolone. However, in view of its easy availability and cost, dexamethasone has been often used in India for the above conditions. While there are no controlled studies comparing the two drugs, it appears that the two drugs may be similar in efficacy. Patients requiring high dose intravenous steroid therapy may be treated effectively with either methylprednisolone or dexamethasone. Unable to display preview.
Pulse corticosteroid therapy with methylprednisolone or dexamethasone. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Basic Concepts and Clinical Application. Chapman and Hall, New York, ; —
Iamges: pulse steroids solumedrol
Methylprednisolone sodium succinate, USP, is the sodium succinate ester of methylprednisolone, and it occurs as a white, or nearly white, odorless hygroscopic, amorphous solid. Finally, they should get a blood count and a chem panel as a baseline along with a urinalysis to check for an infection, which is one of the most common causes for a major relapse.
To prevent these withdrawal symptoms when stopping methylprednisolone , your doctor may reduce your dose gradually. Serious neurologic events, some resulting in death, have been reported with epidural injection of corticosteroids. It is useful in conditions where rapid immunosuppression and antiinflammatory effect is desired, as in systemic lupus erythematosus, pemphigus, renal transplantation, steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome and crescentic glomerulonephritis.
Pulse steroids solumedrol decrease bone formation and increase bone resorption both through their effect on pulse steroids solumedrol regulation i. I'm happy to report that everything is going pretty good so far with the monthly IV Solu Medrol infusions pulse therapy. Sometimes its hard to get people to see MS as a disease. The Content on this Aolumedrol is presented in a summary fashion, and is intended to be used for educational and entertainment purposes only. Otherwise, call a poison control center right away.