Ergogenic use of anabolic steroids - Wikipedia

Testosterone Injection

anabolic steroid abuse meaning

In , a study published in the Lancet suggested that anabolic steroids are less dangerous than most other illegal substances, and some legal ones. Its quick action apart, an injectable steroid offers minimal gastrointestinal effects and can be administered to individuals in altered states of consciousness. The commonly available testosterone steroids are as follows. Read more about ACD. It is also suggested that for a man in a relationship, physical interaction is not necessary for maintaining high testosterone levels, while it is the opposite in women. The Ann Arbor News. Commonly used testosterone steroids Testosterone is the most effective steroid hormone produced in the human body.

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Read more about ACC. Compared with individuals that did not use steroids, young adult males that used AAS reported greater involvement in violent behaviors even after controlling for the effects of key demographic variables, previous violent behavior, and polydrug use. Instruction with respect to dosage must be strictly adhered to. The former provides hour delivery upon application on the skin. Read more about AAAS. For the performance enhancer the idea is to go beyond normal, to give our body an amount of testosterone it is incapable of producing beyond natural levels.

Keep in mind, the higher the dose is the greater the risk. The reward of a higher dosed testosterone injection may indeed be very great but the odds of unwanted side-effects have also increased; there is a risk to reward ratio and only you can weigh and judge if the risk is worth it.

It is important to note, if other anabolic steroids are being stacked with your regular testosterone injection, again, the risk to reward ratio increases yet even more. If you are a performance enhancer be certain you keep an eye on your health; have blood work done regularly as well a regular scheduled physicals. If you do reach the point where you wish to try very high doses, your eye on your health will need to be even more prevalent. Testosterone injections are the most common of all performance enhancing drug PED administrations.

Testosterone injections are very easy to perform, virtually painless and take all of about 30 seconds at most. Of course, depending on the type of testosterone you use will determine how frequently you need to inject, but this will not affect the ease of use.

There are six common forms of testosterone used by performance enhancers. Each one is comprised of the same active testosterone hormone, but is unique based on the ester s attached, or in one case, the lack thereof. We have listed the six common forms, the recommended injection frequency for performance as well as a brief description:. It has been beaten into your head repeatedly in a sense that almost compares anabolic steroids to tools of pure evil.

Testosterone is a hormone your body naturally produces. Of all the hormones your body produces, testosterone is one of the most important; many medical professionals have listed it as one of the most important hormones in the human body. It is essential not only to our development, especially men, but essential to our physical, mental and sexual health, and this includes both men and women. While DHT is a primary factor in promoting male pattern baldness, its role in female hair loss is less predominant.

Dihydrotestosterone builds up in the body slowly over time and disappears. If it builds up at a fast rate, it does not have any specific function to perform or location to be stored in.

So, it binds to the hair follicles and keeps them from receiving important nutrients necessary for healthy hair growth. This in turn results to hair loss as loss of nutrients cause hair to become weak eventually and fall off. When dihydrotestosterone is present in higher-than-normal levels in women, it may cause androgynous male secondary sex characteristics such as facial hair and deep voice.

The role of DHT in the development and aggravation of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia has also been seen. However, administration of DHT to patients suffering from chronic heart disease is said to have beneficial effects, improving total exercise time and time of onset of angina.

As a non-aromatizing androgen, dihydrotestosterone is extremely potent. Aromatization refers to the conversion of testosterone or anabolic steroids into estrogen. High estrogenic activity causes bloating, acne, water retention and oily skin.

As dihydrotestosterone does not aromatize even at high dosages, users do not face the aforementioned side-effects. Lack of water retention also has a hardening effect on muscle tissue, in bodybuilders. Being a powerful androgen, dihydrotestosterone is also responsible for a shift in the estrogen-testosterone ratio in the body. This in turn, spikes sex drive in males.

Winstrol is a popular cutting steroid, but depending on the anabolic steroids it is stacked with, it can also serve as a bulking substance. It can be administered via injections or orally ingested. Primobolan is a mild steroid used in cutting cycles, meaning it helps users gain low muscle mass as opposed to retaining fat.

This can also have a positive effect on the quality of muscle gained. Anavar is a commonly used steroid that adds lean muscle mass and burns fat. The oral steroid is usually used in the cutting cycles. Nandrolone is not a stranger to the sports and bodybuilding fraternities. It is an anabolic steroid that is present in the human body in minimum quantities.

The commercial name of nandrolone is Deca-Durabolin. As a steroid, it can be defined as the synthetic form of testosterone that is injected or consumed orally. It is basically a modification of testosterone in an anabolic-androgenic ratio of The high anabolic ratio points to its muscle-building ability while the low androgenic ratio keeps its virilization effects negligible. In the 60s and 70s, nandrolone was a sought-after option among athletes, but easy detection saw its popularity wane.

Nandrolone does not convert into estrogen, so there are no estrogenic effects associated with its use. This is also one reason why it is able to build quality muscles.

As there is no fat storage or water retention, the muscles formed are stronger and leaner. Also, cholesterol deposits, rapid heart rate and high blood pressure do not come into the picture. In fact, nandrolone is sought-after among body-builders for its ability to maintain both quantity and quality in the muscle-building process.

Nandrolone also offers medical uses. It is used in the treatment of refractory anemia and severe disease states. By promoting tissue-building, reversing catabolism and stimulating the production of red blood cells, nandrolone works well for remedying disorders such as HIV; the same functions also make it a popular steroid among athletes and bodybuilders.

Clinical studies have also found nandrolone to be effective in treating osteoporosis and breast cancer. As nandrolone does not break down into dihydrotestosterone but a weaker form, its effect on the prostate, skin and scalp are less. But this is not to say that nandrolone is the safest anabolic steroid you can use. It does cause some side-effects in sensitive individuals. These include nausea, insomnia, diarrhea, acne and bladder irritation. Cardiovascular effects and erectile dysfunction are other effects that can result from lower luteinizing hormone levels promoted by the anabolic steroid.

This is why many steroidal preparations stack nandrolone with testosterone to offset impotence. Nandrolone does not have any effect on the lipid profile, and has been seen to improve HDL cholesterol.

Injectable steroid Nandrolone Phenylpropionate or NPP is used in the bulking or cutting cycles by bodybuilders. The cycle for which it can be used would depend on dosages and diet. Owing to its predominantly anabolic nature and sparse androgenic properties, its use in a mass cycle stacked with testosterone and an effective oral anabolic steroid like Dianabol or Anadrol can make it an important component of a bulking cycle.

In combination with an injectable short-estered anabolic steroid and an oral steroid like Anavar or Winstrol , it can be used in the cutting cycle. The use of nandrolone can be detected in hair or urine; in the latter, the individual in question is tested for a metabolite called norandrosterone. A limit of 2. In the Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan, a nandrolone study — the largest of its kind - was conducted on athletes.

None of the athletes tested more than 0. As it has a long life, nandrolone is intramuscularly injected in doses of mg typically one or two times a week. For rapid action and sustained result, it is usually stacked with other anabolic steroids. Anabolic steroids can be classified on the basis of how they are administered to the individual. They can be administered through injection, taken orally or be applied topically.

In the modern-day sports and body-building landscape, the judicious use of steroids has helped deliver better outcomes, and become a key component of fitness and event-preparation regimens. Individuals should be aware of the features, pros and potential cons of each form of steroid administration.

Steroids can be oil-based or water-based. The former is administered through injection while the latter is intended for oral consumption. Esters are the most commonly used form of injectable steroids. Basically, an ester allows anabolic steroids to extend the length of their effects. The chemical structure of oil-based steroids is responsible for bypassing the human digestive system, thereby significantly reducing the risk of kidney or liver damage.

On the flip side, as injectable steroids stay in the system for an extended period of time, they can be detected long after they have been administered.

Injectable steroids offer many advantages to users, but they are also associated with some side-effects. Straight off, their bioavailability makes them high-value steroids — bioavailability is a measure of the amount of drug absorbed from a given dosage.

The degree to which an injectable steroid becomes immediately available to the target tissue upon administration is high. Its quick action apart, an injectable steroid offers minimal gastrointestinal effects and can be administered to individuals in altered states of consciousness. Some of the other benefits of injectable steroids include a increased rise in fat oxidation b higher energy levels during workouts c enhanced muscle strength d improved speed of recovery.

Side effects include water retention, anxiety, hypertension and acne. Administration and dosage are two critical factors influencing the right use of injectable steroids. Instruction with respect to dosage must be strictly adhered to. High dosages cannot guarantee quick results, and if anything, may pose health risks. As far as administration is concerned, some best practices have been prescribed to ensure the proper use of injectable steroids.

The anabolic steroid must never be injected directly into a vein, or it can have serious repercussions. Other areas of the body pose a risk of nerve damage, and must be avoided. Users must change sites of administration on a rotational basis to avoid straining the skin and keeping scar tissue at bay. Sterile equipment must be used every time a dosage is administered. Sharing injections — as is the case in any medical scenario — can pose a risk of infection, including HIV and different types of hepatitis.

An advantage of oral steroids is their fast action; on the flip side, owing to their shorter half-life, they need to be consumed often. The common examples include Anavar, Dianabol, Adroyd, methyltestosterone and Holotestin. Oral anabolic steroids make their way through the digestive system and liver to enter the bloodstream. This poses a small problem - the natural tendency of the liver is to remove such substances from the body, and as result, oral steroids are subject to strong action by the liver.

This is why they are synthesized to protect the molecule against acidic secretions in the stomach and liver. For the same reason, oral anabolic steroids can stress the liver and be less safer in comparison to their injectable counterparts. They do not pose big health risks contrary to what some sources may suggest. Abuse of oral steroids can culminate into liver damage, but the same holds true for any anabolic steroid, over-the-counter drug or even alcohol.

Even as the health risks of oral anabolic steroids are exaggerated, the onus is on the user to ensure judicious consumption.

Testosterone gels and patches are more recent products that deliver testosterone transdermally into the body. While FDA approval for many such products is in progress, they may not be as readily available as injectable or oral anabolic steroids. Two of the prominent ones include Androderm and Androgel. The former provides hour delivery upon application on the skin.

Transdermal patches adhesive patches placed on the skin may also be used to deliver a steady dose through the skin and into the bloodstream. There is also the risk that an intimate partner or child may come in contact with the application site and inadvertently dose himself or herself; children and women are highly sensitive to testosterone and can suffer unintended masculinization and health effects, even from small doses.

Injection is the most common method used by individuals administering AAS for non-medical purposes. The traditional routes of administration do not have differential effects on the efficacy of the drug.

Studies indicate that the anabolic properties of AAS are relatively similar despite the differences in pharmacokinetic principles such as first-pass metabolism. However, the orally available forms of AAS may cause liver damage in high doses.

Known possible side effects of AAS include: Depending on the length of drug abuse, there is a chance that the immune system can be damaged. Most of these side-effects are dose-dependent, the most common being elevated blood pressure , especially in those with pre-existing hypertension. AAS have been shown to alter fasting blood sugar and glucose tolerance tests.

A number of severe side effects can occur if adolescents use AAS. For example, AAS may prematurely stop the lengthening of bones premature epiphyseal fusion through increased levels of estrogen metabolites , resulting in stunted growth. Other effects include, but are not limited to, accelerated bone maturation , increased frequency and duration of erections, and premature sexual development.

AAS use in adolescence is also correlated with poorer attitudes related to health. Probably carcinogenic to humans. Other side-effects can include alterations in the structure of the heart , such as enlargement and thickening of the left ventricle , which impairs its contraction and relaxation , and therefore reducing ejected blood volume.

AAS use can cause harmful changes in cholesterol levels: AAS use in adolescents quickens bone maturation and may reduce adult height in high doses. There are also sex-specific side effects of AAS. Development of breast tissue in males, a condition called gynecomastia which is usually caused by high levels of circulating estradiol , may arise because of increased conversion of testosterone to estradiol by the enzyme aromatase.

This side-effect is temporary; the size of the testicles usually returns to normal within a few weeks of discontinuing AAS use as normal production of sperm resumes. Female-specific side effects include increases in body hair , permanent deepening of the voice, enlarged clitoris , and temporary decreases in menstrual cycles. Alteration of fertility and ovarian cysts can also occur in females. Kidney tests revealed that nine of the ten steroid users developed a condition called focal segmental glomerulosclerosis , a type of scarring within the kidneys.

The kidney damage in the bodybuilders has similarities to that seen in morbidly obese patients, but appears to be even more severe. High doses of oral AAS compounds can cause liver damage. A review in CNS Drugs determined that "significant psychiatric symptoms including aggression and violence, mania , and less frequently psychosis and suicide have been associated with steroid abuse. Long-term steroid abusers may develop symptoms of dependence and withdrawal on discontinuation of AAS".

Recreational AAS use appears to be associated with a range of potentially prolonged psychiatric effects, including dependence syndromes, mood disorders , and progression to other forms of substance abuse, but the prevalence and severity of these various effects remains poorly understood.

Large-scale long-term studies of psychiatric effects on AAS users are not currently available. DSM-IV lists General diagnostic criteria for a personality disorder guideline that "The pattern must not be better accounted for as a manifestation of another mental disorder, or to the direct physiological effects of a substance e. As a result, AAS users may get misdiagnosed by a psychiatrist not told about their habit.

Affective disorders have long been recognised as a complication of AAS use. From the mids onward, the media reported " roid rage " as a side effect of AAS. A review determined that some, but not all, randomized controlled studies have found that AAS use correlates with hypomania and increased aggressiveness, but pointed out that attempts to determine whether AAS use triggers violent behavior have failed, primarily because of high rates of non-participation.

Compared with individuals that did not use steroids, young adult males that used AAS reported greater involvement in violent behaviors even after controlling for the effects of key demographic variables, previous violent behavior, and polydrug use. The drug response was highly variable.

The mechanism of these variable reactions could not be explained by demographic, psychological, laboratory, or physiological measures.

A study of two pairs of identical twins, in which one twin used AAS and the other did not, found that in both cases the steroid-using twin exhibited high levels of aggressiveness, hostility, anxiety, and paranoid ideation not found in the "control" twin.

The relationship between AAS use and depression is inconclusive. There have been anecdotal reports of depression and suicide in teenage steroid users, [] but little systematic evidence. A review found that AAS may both relieve and cause depression, and that cessation or diminished use of AAS may also result in depression, but called for additional studies due to disparate data. The pharmacodynamics of AAS are unlike peptide hormones. However, as fat-soluble hormones, AAS are membrane-permeable and influence the nucleus of cells by direct action.

The pharmacodynamic action of AAS begin when the exogenous hormone penetrates the membrane of the target cell and binds to an androgen receptor AR located in the cytoplasm of that cell.

From there, the compound hormone-receptor diffuses into the nucleus, where it either alters the expression of genes [] or activates processes that send signals to other parts of the cell. The effect of AAS on muscle mass is caused in at least two ways: It has been hypothesized that this reduction in muscle breakdown may occur through AAS inhibiting the action of other steroid hormones called glucocorticoids that promote the breakdown of muscles.

As their name suggests, AAS have two different, but overlapping, types of effects: Some examples of the anabolic effects of these hormones are increased protein synthesis from amino acids , increased appetite, increased bone remodeling and growth, and stimulation of bone marrow , which increases the production of red blood cells. Through a number of mechanisms AAS stimulate the formation of muscle cells and hence cause an increase in the size of skeletal muscles , leading to increased strength.

The androgenic effects of AAS are numerous. Depending on the length of use, the side effects of the steroid can be irreversible.

Processes affected include pubertal growth, sebaceous gland oil production, and sexuality especially in fetal development.

Some examples of virilizing effects are growth of the clitoris in females and the penis in male children the adult penis size does not change due to steroids [ medical citation needed ] , increased vocal cord size, increased libido , suppression of natural sex hormones , and impaired production of sperm. Men may develop an enlargement of breast tissue, known as gynecomastia, testicular atrophy, and a reduced sperm count. Compounds with a high ratio of androgenic to an anabolic effects are the drug of choice in androgen-replacement therapy e.

This disassociation is less marked in humans, where all AAS have significant androgenic effects. A commonly used protocol for determining the androgenic: The VP weight is an indicator of the androgenic effect, while the LA weight is an indicator of the anabolic effect.

Two or more batches of rats are castrated and given no treatment and respectively some AAS of interest. Animal studies also found that fat mass was reduced, but most studies in humans failed to elucidate significant fat mass decrements.

The effects on lean body mass have been shown to be dose-dependent. Both muscle hypertrophy and the formation of new muscle fibers have been observed. The hydration of lean mass remains unaffected by AAS use, although small increments of blood volume cannot be ruled out. The upper region of the body thorax, neck, shoulders, and upper arm seems to be more susceptible for AAS than other body regions because of predominance of ARs in the upper body. After drug withdrawal, the effects fade away slowly, but may persist for more than 6—12 weeks after cessation of AAS use.

Overall, the exercise where the most significant improvements were observed is the bench press. The measurement of the dissociation between anabolic and androgenic effects among AAS is based largely on a simple although arguably unsophisticated and outdated model involving rat tissue bioassays.

The intracellular metabolism theory explains how and why remarkable dissociation between anabolic and androgenic effects can occur despite the fact that these effects are mediated through the same signaling receptor, and of course why dissociation is invariably incomplete. An animal study found that two different kinds of androgen response elements could differentially respond to testosterone and DHT upon activation of the AR.

Changes in endogenous testosterone levels may also contribute to differences in myotrophic—androgenic ratio between testosterone and synthetic AAS.

Testosterone can be metabolized by aromatase into estradiol , and many other AAS can be metabolized into their corresponding estrogenic metabolites as well. The major effect of estrogenicity is gynecomastia woman-like breasts. AAS are androstane or estrane steroids. As well as others such as 1-dehydrogenation e.

The most commonly employed human physiological specimen for detecting AAS usage is urine, although both blood and hair have been investigated for this purpose. The AAS, whether of endogenous or exogenous origin, are subject to extensive hepatic biotransformation by a variety of enzymatic pathways. The primary urinary metabolites may be detectable for up to 30 days after the last use, depending on the specific agent, dose and route of administration.

A number of the drugs have common metabolic pathways, and their excretion profiles may overlap those of the endogenous steroids, making interpretation of testing results a very significant challenge to the analytical chemist.

Methods for detection of the substances or their excretion products in urine specimens usually involve gas chromatography—mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The use of gonadal steroids pre-dates their identification and isolation. Medical use of testicle extract began in the late 19th century while its effects on strength were still being studied.

In the s, it was already known that the testes contain a more powerful androgen than androstenone , and three groups of scientists, funded by competing pharmaceutical companies in the Netherlands, Germany, and Switzerland, raced to isolate it. The chemical synthesis of testosterone was achieved in August that year, when Butenandt and G. Wettstein, announced a patent application in a paper "On the Artificial Preparation of the Testicular Hormone Testosterone Androstenoneol.

Clinical trials on humans, involving either oral doses of methyltestosterone or injections of testosterone propionate , began as early as Kennedy was administered steroids both before and during his presidency. The development of muscle-building properties of testosterone was pursued in the s, in the Soviet Union and in Eastern Bloc countries such as East Germany, where steroid programs were used to enhance the performance of Olympic and other amateur weight lifters.

In response to the success of Russian weightlifters, the U. The new steroid was approved for use in the U.

Iamges: anabolic steroid abuse meaning

anabolic steroid abuse meaning

Instruction with respect to dosage must be strictly adhered to. Illegal anabolic steroids are sometimes sold at gyms, competitions, and through the mail, but may also be obtained through pharmacists, veterinarians, and physicians. Bodybuilders who have successfully leveraged anabolic steroids to meet their fitness goals have most probably followed the golden rules on steroid.

anabolic steroid abuse meaning

Pharmacy and pharmacology portal Medicine portal. The androgenic effects of testosterone can be seen right from the prenatal stage through the adolescence and adult phase that the person goes through. These hormones are said to be named so, for their involvement in glucose metabolism.

anabolic steroid abuse meaning

Handb Exp Pharmacol If you are a performance enhancer be certain you keep anabolic steroid abuse meaning eye on your health; have blood work done regularly as well a regular scheduled physicals. Abuze, is by far, the most potent steroid ever made. Bolandiol dipropionate Nandrolone esters e. Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning 4th Edition. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine.