In this situation, the second law of thermodynamics must not apply. All physical and chemical systems in the universe follow the second law of thermodynamics and proceed in a downhill, i. High levels of ADP act as an allosteric inhibitor of catabolic pathways. The allosteric inhibitor lowers the temperature of the e. None of the listed responses is correct. High levels of ADP act as an allosteric activator of catabolic pathways d. The glycerol and fatty acids either provide energy or get reconverted into fats.
The flow of energy between catabolic and anabolic pathways is reversible. These fats are accumulated in different organs below the skin layer. Anabolic processes do not use oxygen. Which of the following states the relevance of the first law of thermodynamics to biology? This page was last edited on 18 June , at All of these values reveal the direction in which a reaction will go. All of the listed responses are correct.
The first law of thermodynamics is being violated. The entropy of the organism's environment must also be decreasing.
Heat is being used by the organism as a source of energy. In this situation, the second law of thermodynamics must not apply. Which of the following has the most free energy per molecule?
The first two molecules listed are roughly equal in the energy they contain. The first three molecules listed are roughly equal in the energy they contain. All of these values reveal the direction in which a reaction will go. When one molecule is broken down into six component molecules, which of the following will always be true?
An input of free energy is needed. The first three choices are correct. Which of the following reactions would be endergonic? A and B are converted to C and D. What can be concluded? A and B will be converted to C and D with a net release of energy. The conversion of A and B to C and D is spontaneous. The reaction that proceeds to convert A and B to C and D is endergonic; the products are more organized than the reactants.
The conversion of A and B to C and D is exergonic; the products are less organized than the reactants. The entropy in the products, C and D, is higher than in the reactants, A and B. Metabolic pathways in cells are typically far from equilibrium.
Which of the following processes tend s to keep these pathways away from equilibrium? The first and second listed responses are correct. The first, second, and third listed responses are correct. Which of the following is an example of the cellular work accomplished with the free energy derived from the hydrolysis of ATP, involved in the production of electrochemical gradients?
Which of the following statements correctly describes some aspect of ATP hydrolysis being used to drive the active transport of an ion into the cell against the ion's concentration gradient?
Both ATP hydrolysis and active transport are spontaneous because they result in an increase in entropy of the system. The hydrolysis of ATP is endergonic, and the active transport is exergonic. ATP is acting as a transport protein to facilitate the movement of the ion across the plasma membrane. Neither ATP hydrolysis nor active transport is spontaneous.
This is an example of energy coupling. Much of the suitability of ATP as an energy intermediary is related to the instability of the bonds between the phosphate groups. When 1 mole of ATP is hydrolyzed in a test tube without an enzyme, about twice as much heat is given off as when 1 mole of ATP is hydrolyzed in a cell.
Which of the following best explains these observations? Cells have the ability to store heat; this cannot happen in a test tube.
Cells are less efficient at energy metabolism than reactions that are optimized in a test tube. The amount of heat released by a reaction has nothing to do with the free energy change of the reaction. In the cell, the hydrolysis of ATP is coupled to other endergonic reactions.
What best characterizes the role of ATP in cellular metabolism? The free energy released by ATP hydrolysis may be coupled to an endergonic process via the formation of a phosphorylated intermediate. The DG associated with its hydrolysis is positive. It is catabolized to carbon dioxide and water. The release of free energy during the hydrolysis of ATP heats the surrounding environment. The charge on the phosphate group of ATP tends to make the molecule very water-soluble.
The formation of glucosephosphate from glucose is an endergonic reaction and is coupled to which of the following reactions or pathways? Which of the following is changed by the presence of an enzyme in a reaction? The sign determines whether the reaction is spontaneous, and the magnitude determines the speed.
How do enzymes lower activation energy? The second and third choices above are correct. The first two responses above are correct. Which of the following statements about enzymes is true? Enzymes speed up the rate of the reaction without changing the DG for the reaction. The more heat that is added to a reaction, the faster the enzymes will function.
Enzymes increase the rate of a reaction by raising the activation energy for reactions. Enzymes react with their substrate form chemical bonds , forming an enzyme-substrate complex, which irreversibly alters the enzyme. Which of the following statements about enzyme function is correct? Enzymes can change the equilibrium point of reactions, but they cannot speed up reactions because they cannot change the net energy output. Enzymes can greatly speed up reactions, but they cannot change the activation energy because they cannot change the net energy output.
Enzymes can lower the activation energy of reactions, but they cannot change the equilibrium point because they cannot change the net energy output. Enzymes can greatly speed up reactions, but they cannot change the net energy output because they cannot change the activation energy.
None of the listed responses is correct. Which of the following statements about enzymes is incorrect? An enzyme lowers the activation energy of a chemical reaction. Most enzymes are proteins. An enzyme is consumed during the reaction it catalyzes. An enzyme is very specific in terms of which substrate it binds to.
Enzymes can be used to accelerate both anabolic and catabolic reactions. Which of the following statements about the active site of an enzyme is correct? The structure of the active site is not affected by changes in temperature. The active site may resemble a groove or pocket in the surface of a protein into which the substrate fits.
The active site allows the reaction to occur under the same environmental conditions as the reaction without the enzyme. Coenzymes are rarely found in the active site of an enzyme. The active site has a fixed structure shape. What is meant by the "induced fit" of an enzyme?
The substrate can be altered so that it is induced to fit into the enzyme's active site. The shape of the active site is nearly perfect for specifically binding the enzyme's substrate s. The enzyme structure is altered so that it can be induced to fit many different types of substrate.
The presence of the substrate in solution induces the enzyme to slightly change its structure. The enzyme changes its shape slightly as the substrate binds to it. Which of the following statements correctly describe s the role s of heat in biological reactions? Heat from the environment is necessary for substrates to get over the activation energy barrier. The kinetic energy of the substrates is increased as the amount of heat in the system is increased.
Increasing the amount of heat in a system will increase the rate of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The second and third choices are correct. Above a certain substrate concentration, the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction drops as the enzymes become saturated. Which of the following would lead to a faster conversion of substrate into product under these saturated conditions?
Which of the following environments or actions would not affect the rate of an enzyme reaction? Anabolic processes usually result in an increase in muscle mass, such as isometrics or weight lifting However, any other exercise that is anaerobic, such as sprinting, interval training and other high intensity activities, are also anabolic During periods of such activities, the body expends immediate stores of energy, with removal of lactic acid that has been built up in muscles 2.
In response, muscle mass is increased in preparation for any further efforts. This means catabolic processes result in larger, stronger muscles, as well as strengthened bones and increased protein reserves by using amino acids, all combining to increase body weight Typically, any exercise that is aerobic is a catabolic process.
These include swimming, jogging and cycling, and other exercises that induce a conversion from using either glucose or glycogen as an energy source, to burning fat to meet the increased energy requirement While both are key to a reduction in body fat mass, anabolism and catabolism are contrasting metabolic processes that result in either an increase or decrease in overall body weight.
A combination catabolic and anabolic exercises allow the body to reach and maintain ideal body weight. The key fundamental difference between the two processes, are the reaction types that are involved in each.
Anabolism utilizes ATP as a form of energy, converting kinetic energy into potential energy stored in the body, which increases body mass. It produces endergonic processes, that are anaerobic, occurring during the process of photosynthesis in plants, as well as assimilation in animals.
Catabolism releases energy, either as ATP or heat, converting stored potential energy into kinetic energy. It burns complex molecules and decreases body mass and produces exergonic processes, that are aerobic and occur during cell respiration, digestion, and excretion. Leave a Response Cancel Reply Name required. There is no need to resubmit your comment. Notify me of followup comments via e-mail.
Molecular Physiology 16 1 , de Bolster, M. Glossary of Terms Used in Bioinorganic Chemistry: Evidence for the ubiquity of mixotrophic bacteria in the upper ocean: Bone 22 1 , 1—6 Brisken, C. Hormone action in the mammary gland. Increase in bone density and lean body mass during testosterone administration in men with acquired hypogonadism.
Biological Actions of Androgens. Oxford University Press, Energy metabolism, fuel selection and body weight regulation. Resistance exercise enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis with graded intakes of whey protein in older men. Stimulation of muscle anabolism by resistance exercise and ingestion of leucine plus protein.
Chronic heart failure and skeletal muscle catabolism: Estimation of an individual equilibrium between lactate production and catabolism during exercise. User assumes all risk of use, damage, or injury. You agree that we have no liability for any damages.
Iamges: anabolic reaction endergonic or exergonic
It is catabolized to carbon dioxide and water. The process of getting to the top of the activation energy barrier to the transition state is endergonic.
The structure of the active site is not affected by changes in temperature. The gastric glands secrete hydrochloric acid and gastric juice which help in digestion of food.
Biological Actions of Androgens. Energy is destroyed as glucose is broken down during cellular respiration c. Inhibition of enzyme function by compounds that are not substrates is something that only occurs under controlled conditions in the laboratory. They are sensitive to environmental conditions. At a cellular level, anabolism uses monomers to form polymers, resulting in the formation of more complex molecules. User assumes all risk of use, damage, or injury. The key fundamental difference between the two processes, are the reaction types that are involved anabolic reaction endergonic or exergonic each.
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